for 6 US Gallons (23 Liters)
all necessary Equipment
Basic Winemaking Equipment
everything with a sulphite solution
Crab Apples -
25 pounds (11 Kilograms)
10 pounds (4.5 Kilograms)
Grape Concentrate - 9 ounces (250 mL)
Fruit Straining Bag - 1 each
- 2˝ teaspoons
Enzyme - 2˝ teaspoons
Nutrient - 3 teaspoons
Tablets - 3 each
Finings 2 fluid ounces (60 mL)
- 1 teaspoon
Lalvin EC1118 - 1 package
Step No 1 - Primary
Fermentation - Day 1
1. Prepare the crab apples by cutting into small
pieces crushing them, placing inside the nylon straining bag.
2. In a Food Grade plastic fermenter pour in 2 gallons (7.5 Liters) of warm water, the sugar and the grape concentrate (if required).
3. After 48 hours add the tannin, acid blend, pectic enzyme and yeast
4. Bring the contents
of your fermenter to the 6 US gallon (23 Liter) mark using cool
water. Stir well. Using your hydrometer and hydrometer test jar
check for the desired starting specific gravity (Specific Gravity).
). This reading will determine the potential alcohol of your wine
(approx. 10.5-11.5% alc/vol). If mixed properly your Specific Gravity
should be between 1.065 and 1.072.
5. Check the
temperature of the wine must (mixture) using your floating
thermometer. Open the yeast packet and gently sprinkle over the
must. The temperature should be as close to 75-80°F (21–24°C) as
possible to activate the yeast.
6. Loosely cover the
primary fermenter with a plastic lid and place in a warm area (75-80°F/21–24°C)
to maintain a constant temperature for the next few days.
Fermentation will start within 24–48 hours if the temperature is
7. Using a mixing spoon
or brewing paddle stir the floating cap of fruit pulp into the
fermenting must twice a day during this period. This will ensure
maximum fruit extraction.
Step No 2 -Secondary
Fermentation - Day 6 - 8
When the Specific Gravity reaches 1.005 - 1.010, usually 6 to 8 days,
(it depends on the fermenting temperature; the warmer the temperature
the faster the fermentation) it is time to rack (siphon) the wine into
the carboy (secondary fermenter). Your must is now referred to as wine
because it contains alcohol.
rack the wine into a clean and sanitized carboy (preferably glass)
using a proper siphon system, leaving all the fruit pulp behind.
Prepare your residual fruit pulp for juice extraction. Sterilize the
muslin straining bag with sulphite solution then rinse well. Place
the fruit pulp in the muslin bag to squeeze out the excess juice.
Add this excess fruit juice to your carboy. Discard the spent fruit
the wine level is not within 2 inches (5 centimetres) of the top of
the carboy neck use some white, rose or red wine (use the same color
as your must) to top up the carboy air space. Never use water to top
up a fruit wine; it will dilute the body and flavor of your wine. It
is important to reduce the amount of air space in the carboy so as
to minimize oxidation (a slightly bitter taste caused by prolonged
exposure to oxygen).
your airlock and rubber bung. Fill the airlock with a neutral
solution (preferably sulphite) or water and insert the airlock and
bung into the carboy neck opening.
4. Leave the carboy at
a temperature between 75-80°F (21–24°C) for a further 18-20 days
to finish fermentation. After 18 days, check the Specific Gravity.
You should get a reading of 1.000 or less. If the Specific Gravity
is above 1.000 allow a few more days of fermentation and then check
the Specific Gravity again. To make a sweet wine add a commercially prepared Wine
Sweetener & Conditioner to your wine just prior to bottling.
Step No 3
-Stabilizing & De-gassing - Day 28
To clear your wine faster you should now rack your wine into a
sterilized carboy (backup carboys are very helpful for this) before
stabilization, leaving the lees (sediment) and any residual fruit pulp
the Potassium Sorbate into 1 cup (250 mL) of wine. The Sorbate will
ensure fermentation ceases. Add this mixture to the carboy and stir
vigorously (using the handle end of your mixing spoon) for 2–3
minutes to release any excess CO2 gas. This is very
the Super-Kleer finings. Super-Kleer will help your wine clear
faster. Pour the Super-Kleer into the carboy and stir gently, using
your spoon handle, for 2–3 minutes to mix the Super-Kleer into the
3. Top up the carboy
air space with wine (same procedure as before). Place the wine in a
cooler area between 60-68°F (16-20°C) to clear faster. Stir the
wine twice a day over the next two days to rid it of any excess
carbonation. Always make sure the airlock and bung is secure after
stirring and the airlock is full of solution.
Step No 4 - Clearing
- Day 30
After 2 days of
stirring, leave your wine in a cool area for 5-12 (preferably) days to
Step No 5 -
Filtering & Bottling - Day 42
Your wine is now ready
for bottling. To give your wine a professional appearance, it is
recommended to filter before bottling. We highly recommend the use of
the EuroFilter™ Electric Wine Filter for this purpose.